Through the purchase requisition (BANF for short), a department reports its need for material or services. This triggers a purchase order for the purchasing department. For a better understanding we will work out the master data from this example in the end.
But first the question "What is SAP master data?" arises. What is behind this term at all and how does master data differentiate itself from any other data? This article will answer these and other questions.
Master data contains all important information about companies, suppliers and customers. This data remains unchanged over a long period of time and is required again and again within business processes.
This can be, for example, names of material, addresses of business persons and suppliers, or delivery confirmations for customers.
Master data fulfills the following aspects in particular:
But what types of SAP master data exist? In the next section, you will get an overview of the most important types of master data. (Quelle)
Material master: Central location for organizing and storing material-specific data such as material number, weight, size and description
Supplier master: Includes all supplier-specific data such as name, address, currency, payment terms and contact people
Customer master: All sales-side processes revolve around this master data such as customer name, address, customer number, bank details and delivery terms
Purchasing info record: links the material master to the vendor master. That is, information that relates a material exclusively to a vendor, such as prices, terms, and planned delivery time, is maintained here
Messages: Data used to communicate to the customer through email, print, EDI, or even fax. Common messages are order confirmations for customers, invoices, shipping confirmations, and shipment documents
There is of course not only one type of data in SAP. In addition to master data, there is also organizational data and transaction data. These data are clearly separated, but can be interdependent within a business process.
Organizational data is used to map a company in the system.
Last but not least, there is transaction data. This data is mutable and usually exists only within a business process.
In the introduction of this section it was written that all these data types are interdependent.
A specialist department needs a material from the warehouse, which the plant's internal logistics must deliver from the warehouse to the production plant. This order of the employee contains the material name as well as the material number as master data. But also the quantity that is needed as movement data. This means that movement data always builds on master data. Without master data there is no movement data. Master data need to exist the organization data, which contain the warehouse and the plant.
This results in the probability of change of the data. Since the organizational data represents the real company, the probability that this data will be changed is lower. Master data is changed more frequently than organizational data. If the address or the name of a business partner changes, this must be adjusted in the master data. Transaction data changes most often because it exists only within a business process.
With this information in mind, we now turn our attention to an example and will work out the master data afterwards. (Quelle)
In a company, at least three different departments are involved in a purchasing process: The purchasing department, the receiving department and the invoice verification department.
An employee needs a certain material for the further course of his activity. He communicates this by a purchase requisition to the purchase (determination of demand). The purchase department determines the source of supply with the help of the requirement request. This is selected considering past orders (determination of the source of supply). With the supplier choice different offers, which come into question, must be caught up (selection of the supplier).
In the next step, the order is processed (order processing). Here, contacts can be referred to. Since several departments are involved in the process, the entire handling must be tracked (order monitoring).
In this step, suppliers can also be warned in case of outstanding deliveries. Now that the material has been received (goods receipt) and checked for quantity and quality, the invoice is also checked for accuracy (invoice verification). Finally, the payment is processed (payment processing), but this is no longer assigned to Materials Management, but to Financial Accounting.
In this example, several master data have come into place.
From practice for practice: Libelle MasterDataServicesSuite was developed in order to meet the needs of all those who work with master data in daily operations or in migration projects. Our toolbox can be easily operated via the central cockpit and offers six tools that cover all master data maintenance tasks, either individually or in combination.